American Foreign Policy

American Foreign Policy PS 123/PACS 130
Spring 2003
Monday and Wednesday 4-5:30
4 LeConte
Professor Crawford
202 Moses Hall
Office Hours: M 10-11:30


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Beverly Crawford


Institute of European Studies
International and Area Studies.
202 Moses Hall (510) 549-2018
University of California, Berkeley
Berkeley, CA 94720
(510) 642-0210
fax (510) 643-3372
e-mail address:


present Associate Director and Associate Research Political Scientist, Center for German and European Studies, University of Cal

present Senior Lecturer, Political Economy of Industrial Societies, University of California, Berkeleyifornia (Acting Director, 1997-1999

2000, 2003 Visiting Professor, MIEM - SDA Bocconi - Bocconi University, Milan Italy

2000 Spring DAAD Professor, Free University of Berlin

1999 Spring DAAD Professor, Technical University, Dresden

1987 - 89 Visiting Assistant Professor, University of California, Santa Cruz

1983 - 88 Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15260


1982 Ph.D., Political Science, University of California, Berkeley
1973 M.A., International Relations, Boston University
1966 B.A., German, Chapman College, Orange, California

International Relations (major field)
International Political Economy
Economics and Security
West European Area Studies
Public Policy Analysis
Foreign Policy Analysis
American Foreign Policy

International Political Economy
The Political Economy of Ethnic Conflict
Classical Theories of Political Economy
Modern Theories of Political Economy
Economics and Security
International Law
Research Methods
Comparative Politics
International Relations Theory
Feminist Theories of International Relations
American Foreign Policy


A Teutonic Shift: Explaining Germany's new Foreign Policy (forthcoming)
The book aims to fill the conceptual gap between international relations theory and foreign policy analysis, using Germany as a case study in which to explore the changing sources of a rising power's policy preferences. Using matched and contrasting cases, it tests the utility of domestic, neo-liberal institutionalist, realist, and constructivist accounts of foreign policy preference formation in three issue areas: diplomacy, foreign economic policy, and security. The book argues that Germany’s foreign policy is shaped primarily by Germany’s power position on the international stage and by the state of its economy. Both have changed rather dramatically in the years since the wall fell, and the world has seen several dramatic “shifts” in Germany’s foreign policy. The more robust the economy, the more Germany’s power has been used to underwrite cooperation in Europe and in international relations. But continued economic stagnation leads Germany’s leaders to shift away from that role and assert self-interest more blatantly, even to the point of defecting from international cooperation. Domestic politics, political culture, leadership, international institutions all contribute to German foreign policy behavior, but the principle factors at work are power and the state of the economy.

Economic Vulnerability in International Relations, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993) This Book is an evaluation and explanation of American foreign policy on export controls. It assesses the sources of policy preference within the United States and how the United States achieved (or did not achieve) export control cooperation within CoCom. It evaluates policy preferences and decisions on the basis of evidence for policy choice and assesses the political and symbolic aspects of policy choice. It argues that during the Cold War, U.S. export control policy was not based on sound evidence concerning the “threat” of East-West trade, but rather on political and symbolic considerations.


The Convergence of Civilizations? Constructing a Mediterranean Region co-editor with Emanuel Adler, Federica Bicci, and Raffaella Del Sarto. University of Toronto Press, forthcoming

The Post-war Transformation of Germany: Democracy, Prosperity, and Nationhood, co-editor with John Brady and Sarah Wilson, University of Michigan Press, 1999.

The Myth of “Ethnic Conflict: Politics, Economics and Cultural Violence, co-editor with Ronnie D. Lipschutz, Berkeley: International and Area Studies, 1998.

Liberalization and Leninist Legacies: Democratic Transitions in comparative Perspective, co-editor with Arend Lijphart (Berkeley: International and Area Studies, 1997)

Markets, States, and Democracy: The Political Economy of Post-Communist Transformation (Boulder Co: Westview Press, 1995)

European Dilemmas after Maastricht, co-editor with Peter W. Schulze (Berkeley: International and Area Studies, 1993)

The Future of European Security, editor, (Berkeley: U.C. Berkeley International and Area Studies, 1992).

Progress in Post-War International Relations. co-editor with Emanuel Adler (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991).

A New Europe Asserts Itself: Europe's Changing Role in International Relations, co-editor with Peter W. Schulze (Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, 1990).


“Wie Lady Bismarck leidet,” in Cicero, Magazin fuer Politische Kultur, October 2004, pp. 58-63

“The Bosnian Road to Nato Expansion,” in Journal of Contemporary Security Policy Vol 21 No 2, August 2000.

"Explaining Defection from International Cooperation: Germany's Recognition of Croatia" World Politics 48 (July 1996), 482-521.

"Old Legacies, New Institutions, Hegemonic Norms, and International Pressures: Explaining Political and Economic Change in Post-Communist Eastern Europe" with Arend Lijphardt, Comparative Political Studies, Vol. 28 No.2 July 1995, pp. 171-199.

________ translated into Bulgarian and reprinted in Political Studies, (Summer, 1995) Quarterly Journal of the Bulgarian Political Science Association.

"German Foreign Policy and European Political Cooperation: The Diplomatic Recognition of Croatia in 1991" German Politics and Society Vol. 13, No. 2 (Summer 1995) pp.1-34.

"The New Security Dilemma under International Economic Interdependence," Millennium: Journal of International Studies Vol. 23, No. 1 (Spring 1994), pp. 25-55.

"How Regimes Matter: Western Control of East-West Trade Finance," Millennium: Journal of International Studies. Vol. 16, No.3 (December 1987), pp. 431-452.

"Stabilizing Factors in International Conflict Resolution," Negotiation Journal: On the Process of Dispute Settlement. Vol. 3, No. 3, (October 1987), pp. 333-345

"Decision Modes and Regime Change: Western Collaboration on East-West Trade," with Stefanie Lenway, World Politics, Vol. 37, No.3 (April, 1985), pp. 375-402.


"Why the Euro-Med Partnership? European Strategies in the Mederranean Region," in Vinod K. Aggarwal and Edward A. Fogarty, eds., EU Trade Strategies: Between Regionalism and Globalism (New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2004)

“Asia Beckons America: The Case of the Automobile Industry,” co-authored with Nick Biziouras in Vinod Aggarwal, ed., Winning in Asia, US Style: Market and Non-Market Strategies for Success, ( New York: Palgrave Press, 2003) (co-authored with Nick Biziouras).

“The Fast Lane to Asia: Volkswagen and Peugeot in China,”co-authored with Nick Biziouras, in Vinod Aggarwal, ed., Winning in Asia, European Style: (New York: Palgrave Press 2001), pp. 160-186.

“The Bosnian Road to NATO Expansion,” in Robert W. Rauchhaus, ed., Explaining NATO Enlargement (London: Frank Cass Press, 2000)

“Mediating Globalization and Social Integration in Post-communist societies: A comparison of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria” in Aseem Prakash and Jeffrey A. Hart, Responding to Globalization, (Routledge, 2000.)

"An Empty Nest: Reconciling European Security Institutions in the Bosnian Crisis" in Vinod Aggarwal, ed., Institutional Designs for a Complex World: Bargaining, Linkages, and Nesting, (Cornell University Press, 1998).

“Explaining cultural Conflict in Ex-Yugoslavia: Institutional Weakness, Economic Crisis, and Identity Politics,” in Beverly Crawford and Ronnie D. Lipschutz, eds. The Myth of Ethnic Conflict (Berkeley: International and Area Studies 1998)

"Discourses of War: Security and the Case of Yugoslavia," with Ronnie D. Lipschutz," in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams, eds. Critical Security Studies (University of Minnesota Press, 1997)

"Representations of Germans and What Germans Represent: American Film Images and Public Perceptions in the Post-War Era" with James Martel, in David E. Barclay and Elisabeth Glaser-Schmidt, eds. Transatlantic Images and Perceptions: Germany and America since 1776 (Cambridge University Press, 1997)

“Explaining Germany’s Unilateral Recognition of Croatia in 1991,” in Roland Schoenfeld, ed. Germany and Southeastern Europe--Aspects of Relations in the Twentieth Century Deutschland und Suedosteurope--Aspekte der Beziehungen im Zwanzigsten Jahrhundert (Munich: Suedosteurope-Gesellschaft, 1997)

"The Transformation of Identity in Comparative perspective," in Norbert Finzsch, ed. Comparative Reconstructions: Reconstruction and "Wiederafubau" in the United States and Germany: 1865, 1945, 1989 (London: Berghahn, 1996)

"Hawks, Doves, but No Owls: International Economic Interdependence and the Construction of a New Security Dilemma" in Ronnie D. Lipschutz, ed. On Security, New York: Columbia University Press, 1995).

"Forging Consensus on Multilateral Nonproliferation Export Controls: Three Lessons from the Cold War and Its Aftermath," in Gary K. Bertsch, Richard T. Cupitt, and Takehiko Yamamoto, eds., US and Japanese Nonproliferation Export Controls: Theory, Description, and Analysis (University Press of America, 1995).

"Export Controls in an Interdependent World: Toshiba's Sale of Illegal technology to the Soviet Union," in Gary W. Bertsch and Stephen Elliot-Gower, eds., Export Controls in Transition (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1992), pp. 249-290.

"Germany's Role in Europe's Security Future," with Jost Halfmann in The Future of European Security, Beverly Crawford, editor, (Berkeley: U.C. Berkeley International and Area Studies, 1992), pp. 216-249.

"Defining and Conceptualizing Progress in International Relations," with Jack Donnelly and Emanuel Adler in Progress in Post-War International Relations. Emanuel Adler and Beverly Crawford, eds., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), pp. 1-42. pp. 25-55.

"Toward a Clearer Understanding of Progress in International Relations," in Progress in Post-War International Relations. Emanuel Adler and Beverly Crawford, eds., (New York: Columbia University Press, 1991), pp. 438-68.

"The Roots of European Self-Assertion in East-West Trade," in A New Europe Asserts Itself: Europe's Changing Role in International Relations, Beverly Crawford and Peter W.Schulze, editors (Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, 1990), pp. 251-283.

"Western Control of East-West Trade Finance: The Role of U.S. Power and the International Regime," in Gary Bertsch, ed., The Control of East-West Trade: Power. Politics and Policy (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press,, 1988), pp. 280-312.

"When Business Becomes Politics: A Case Study of the Trans-Siberian Natural Gas Pipeline Embargo" with Stefanie Lenway, in James Post, ed., Research in Corporate Performance and Policy, Vol., 8 (Greenwich, Connecticut: JAI Press, 1986) pp. 29-53.

Book Reviews, Policy Papers, Media essays

“Wie Lady Bismarck leidet,” in Cicero, Magazin fuer Politische Kultur, October 2004, pp. 58-63

Review of Randall Newnham, Deutsche Mark Diplomacy: Positive Sanctions in German-Russian Relations in Slavic Review, Vol. 63 no. 2 Summer 2004, pp. 427-28

Review of Jeffrey Anderson, German Unification and the Union of Europe: The Domestic Politics of Integration Policy American Political Science Review Vol. 96 Issue 1,2002, pp. 255-56.

Promising Futures: Promising Practices in Information Technology Training for Disadvantaged Adults, Report to the Ford Foundation, July 2000.

High Tech, Low Income: An Analysis of Multimedia Employment and Training in San Francisco’s Mission District Report for the City of San Francisco Mayor’s Office of Economic Development, February, 2000

Review of James M. Buchanan, ed, Post-Socialist Political Economy: Selected Essays, (Lyme, N.H.: Edward Elgar, 1997) Slavic Review Winter 1999, pp. 887-888 (co-authored with Nick Biziouras).

Review of Denny Roy (ed.), The New Security Agenda in the Asia-Pacific Region (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997) in Millennium, Fall 1999.

Review of Claus Hofhansel, Commercial Competition and National Security: Comparing US and German Export Control Policies (Westport: Praeger, 1996) in The International History Review Volume XX Number 3, September 1998, pp.757-760.

“Economic Vulnerability; Turnkey Plants and Projects” in R.J.B. Jones, The Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy (London: Routledge, forthcoming).

Review of Andrei S. Markovits and Simon Reich The German Predicament: Memory and Power in the New Europe and Peter J. Katzenstein, ed. Tamed Power: Germany In Europe in the American Political Science Review, 1998.

Review of Economic Containment by Michael Mastanduno in the American Political Science Review Vol. 87 No. 4 (December 1993).

Review of Opening the Soviet Economy by Jerry Hough and The Economy of Detente by Georges Sokoloff in the American Political Science Review Vol. 83 (December 1989), pp. 1456-59.

"Liberalizers and their Opponents in Post-Communist Societies," in Leslie Armijo, ed. Conversations on Democratization and Economic Reform:Working Papers of th Southern California Seminar, Los Angeles: Center for International Studies, University of Southern California, distributed by the North-South Center, University of Miami, 1995.

"Ethnic Conflict Isn't," with Ronnie D. Lipschutz, Policy Brief of the University of California Institute of Global Conflict and Cooperation, 1995.

"Economic Globalization and the 'New' Ethnic Strife: What is to be Done?" with Ronnie D. Lipschutz, Policy Paper No. 25 of the University of California Institute of Global Conflict and Cooperation, May, 1996.

"Western Vulnerability in East-West Technology Trade," Institute Occasional Papers (Pittsburgh: Institute for Strategic Economics, 1987).

"From Compliance to Consensus: Western Collaboration on East-West Trade," in Bernhard Buechner, ed.,The European Community Today (Chicago: Institute for European Studies, 1986), pp. 3-10.


DAAD Visiting Professorship, 1999-2000
Friedrich Ebert Foundation Fellow, June 1996
Senior Research Associate, Center for International Trade and Security, University of Georgia -- 1994-present
Fulbright Fellow,, Sofia, Bulgaria, 1994
National Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, 1987
Friedrich Ebert Foundation Fellow, 1986
Danforth Foundation Fellow 1980-82
Fellowship, Institute for the Study of World Politics, 1979-80
Fulbright Grant, Free University of Berlin, 1970
Trustees' Fellowship, Boston University, 1973

Member, Pacific Council on International Policy
American Political Science Association
International Studies Association


1999-2002 Principal Investigator, “Constructing Regional Integration in the Mediterannian, UC Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation”

1999-2000 Principal Investigator, “Promising Practices in Information Technology Training for Disadvantaged Adults,” The Ford Foundation

1997-2000 Co-Principal Investigator, “Forging Pacific Economic and Business Partnerships through the 21st Century” United States Information Agency

1993-96 Co-Principal Investigator, Global Economic Integration, Liberalization, and Ethnic Conflict, The Pew Charitable Trusts and the U.C. Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation

1992-93 Co-Principal Investigator, "Comparative Political and Economic Liberalization," Social Science Research Council

1992 Co-Principal Investigator, "The Politics of Regional Trade Blocs", Pacific Rim Research Program Grant

1990-93 Core Curriculum development and the development of a Minor in European Studies for International and Area Studies Teaching Programs and Colloquium on Modernization and Modernity, Council on Educational Development, U. C. Berkeley

1991-92 Principal Investigator, "The Future of European Security," The Friedrich Ebert Foundation

1988-89 Curriculum Development in Economic Issues and National Security, Exxon Education Foundation

1986-87 "Western Trade Vulnerability," The Hoover Institution

1985-86 "NATO Alliance Negotiations over Trade Restrictions with Warsaw Pact Countries," J. Howard Pew Freedom Trust, Diplomatic Training Program

1983-84 "The NATO Alliance and the Trans-Siberian Pipeline Embargo," Exxon Education Foundation and the Institute of European Studies


“US and EU Regionalism: The Case of Latin America,” Seminar on Trade Regionalism of the US and the EU: Cooperative of Competitive Strategies? University of California, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, January 14, 2005.

"Democracy and Security in the Barcelona Process," Instituto Affari Internazionali, Rome Italy, May 8, 2004

"The End of the Barcelona Process? Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies, Stockholm, Sweden, January 15, 2004

“Old Legacies, New Institutions and EU Enlargement” Conference on Eastern Enlargement of the European Union: Confronting New Unknowns? University of California, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation and The Institute for International, Comparative and Area Studies, UCSD, May 24, 2003

“The Euro-Med Process: A Road to Peace in the Middle East?” World Affairs Council, San Francisco, CA., January 27, 2003

“The Euro-Med Process and EU Transregionalism:” Free University of Brussels, October 13, 2002

“Grand Strategy and American Foreign Policy,” Strategic Assessments Group, Washington D.C. September 9, 2002.

“Can Security be Enhanced through the Construction of a Mediterranean Region?” Conference on The Convergence of Civilizations? The Construction of a Mediterranean Region, Instituto de Estudos Estratégicos e Internacionais, Lisbon, Portugal, June 7-9 2002.

“Old Legacies, New Institutions: What will shape the EU Enlargement Process?” Workshop on Cultural Legacies in post-socialist Europe: The role of multiple pasts in the current transformation Process, Viadrina University, Frankfurt/Oder, June 2-4 2002

“The impact of September 11th on the world economy: what risks lie ahead for global business?” Workshop Internazionale Laboratorio di Economia Politica Internazionale Istituto Affari Internatozionali, University of Rome May 24, 2002

“EU Enlargement: Effects on the Euro-Med Process,” Conference on EU Enlargement and Southern Europe, Istituto Affari Internatozionali, University of Rome, May 22, 2002

“Globalization and Changing European Identities,” and “The Economic Globalization of Europe,” Conference on Globalization and Change in Europe, University of Georgia Center for Humanities and Arts, Athens, Georgia, February 20-22, 2002

“Economic Security after September 11,” Stockholm, Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Conference on Economy and Security, December 14, 2001

“Globalization and American Foreign Policy” Plenary Session Address, World Affairs Council Annual Conference, Globalization: Going Global in the Information Age Asilomar, California, May 5, 2001

“The EU as an actor in security policy: Rival or Partner of the United States?” Loccum, Germany, Conference on the Renewal of the Transatlantic Partnership, March 9, 2001

“Anticipating Ethnic Conflict” Social Issues Group, Office of Transnational Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, and Office of Global and Geographic Issues, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, US Department of State, conference on Anticipating Ethnic Conflict: Framing the Analysis, Washington, DC, July 24, 2000,.

“The ‘Moscow Treaty’ of 1970 from the US Perspective: History, Importance, and Impact, Berlin, Germany, Second Colloquium of the German-Russian Commission of Historians, June 24, 2000

“Explaining US Policy toward the Ostpolitik of the FRG,” Potsdam, Germany, Conference on The Strategic Triangle: France, Germany, the United States, May 31, 2000

“The Local Leader’s Protection: Explaining the Transformation of Germany’s Export Control Policy,” Stockholm, Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Conference on Economy and Security, May 26, 2000

“The Seeds of Ethnic Conflict” Keynote Address, symposium on The Threat Next Door: Ethnic conflict Unleashed, Louis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon, April 4, 2000

“The Economic Causes of ethnic Conflict,”, June 24, 1999 Social Issues Group, Office of Transnational Issues, Central Intelligence Agency, and Office of Global and Geographic Issues, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, US Department of State, conference on Anticipating Ethnic Conflict: Framing the Analysis, Washington, DC.

“Hanging Together: US-EU Relations in the 1990s,” University of New Orleans, March 25, 1999

“Foreign Policy Utopias of Great Powers Revisited: A Comparison of Germany and the United States," presented at the Sixth German-American Historical Krefeld Symposium, Krefeld, Germany, May, 1999

“Methodological Problems in cross-disciplinary approaches to Post Communist Transition,” presented at the conference, Postcommunist Transformation and the Social Sciences: Cross-Disciplinary Approaches, sponsored by the Frankfurt Institute for Transformation Studies, Berlin, 30-31 Oct. 1998.

“Why did Germany give up the Deutschmark to join EMU?” Department of Political Science, University of Tuebingen, July 18, 1997.

“Feminist Theories and Methods in International Relations,” Projektverbund Friedens-undKonfliktforschung in Niedersachsen, University of Osnabruek, July 20-25, 1997

“Immigration and Ethnic Conflict in Germany,” Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation, University of California, San Diego, Workshop on Global and Regional Governance, May 9-10, 1997.

"Why did Germany Recognize Croatia in 1991?" Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Bonn, Germany, June, 1996

"Non-Proliferation Export Controls: Lessons from the Cold War," University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, April, 1995

"The Causes of War in Yugoslavia," York University Conference on Strategies in Conflict: Critical Approaches to Security Studies, Toronto, Canada

"Markets, States, and Democracy," The Henry Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington, November 1992

"Is Europe Asia's Future?" East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, October, 1992

"Economic Security in Post-Cold War Europe" Friedrich Ebert Foundation Conference on Europe after Maastricht, January 15-17, 1992

"Domestic Politics and German Foreign Policy in the New Europe," DAAD Summer Seminar, August 7, 1991

"NATO's Future at the End of the Cold War," World Affairs Council, San Francisco, CA., May 23, 1991

"Germany and the Transformation of Europe," DAAD Summer Seminar, August 1, 1990

"U.S. Foreign Policy Objectives at the End of the Reagan Era," Friedrich Ebert Foundation Conference on American Foreign Policy, Bonn, West Germany, November 1988

"High Technology, National Security, and International Politics," Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy, May 1988

"The Prospect for Joint Ventures with the Soviet Union," Center for Slavic and East European Studies, University of California, Berkeley, "The Gorbachev Era: An Update," April 1988

"The United Nations: Prospects for Reform," Conference on the United Nations, University of Pittsburgh, April 1988

"High Technology and National Security," Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, April 1987

"Statecraft and State Capacity," Faculty Seminar on the State and Society, Harvard University, February 1986

"East-West Technology Transfer: Lessons for the Third World" Hebrew University of Jerusalem, December 1986

"Institutional Weakness and Policy Failure in East-West Trade," Conference on the State and Institutional Political Economy, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, May 1985

"The State Against Itself," Conference on the State and the International Political Economy, UCLA, November 1985

Screening and selection Committee, International and Area Studies Chief Administrative Officer Position


Fulbright Grant Selection Committee, Technical University, Dresden, 1999

Selection Committee, DAAD Prize for Distinguished Scholarship in German Studies, 1997.

Research Support Advisory Board, American Political Science Association, 1996-98.

Chair, Panel on Economic Security, American Political Science Association, Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C. 1994.

Director, Summer Institute in Social Science Theory and Problems of Liberalization, a program for university students from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, June-July, 1992, July-August, 1993.

Chair, Panel on "Redefining Security" American Political Science Association, 1992 Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois

Conference Director, Conference on The Future of European Security, U.C. Berkeley, Spring, 1991

Endowed Programs Committee, American Political Science Association, 1987-88

Chair, Panel on South African Sanctions and Divestment, American Political Science Association, 1987 Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois

Governing Board, International Studies Association, Atlantic Region,1986-87

Chair, Panel on Progress in International Relations, American Political Science Association Annual Meeting 1985, New Orleans, Louisiana

Editorial Board, German Politics and Society
Business and Politics

Article and manuscript referee, articles on trade and security policy, international relations theory, security issues, foreign policy analysis, post-communist transitions, ethnic conflict, and German foreign policy, for: International Security; International Organization; International Studies Quaterly; The American Political Science Review; European Journal of International Relations; Swiss Political Science Review; Journal of Theoretical Politics, University of California Press; Cornell University Press; The University of Michigan Press; Penn State Press; Scott, Foresman and Company; Brooks/Cole Publishing Company; Westview Press, Cambridge University Press.

Jury member and referee for: The Mershon Center Competition in International Security, The Ohio State University; The Harris Faculty Fellowship Program, Grinnell College; The Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities and Social Sciences, The German Academic Exchange Service, The Fulbright Commission..